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Consumer Handbook


Lenders and Brokers Mortgage loans are offered by many kinds of lenders—such as banks, mortgage companies, and credit unions. You can also get a loan through a mortgage broker. Brokers arrange loans; in other words, they find a lender for you. Brokers generally take your application and contact several lenders, but keep in mind that brokers are not required to find the best deal for you unless they have contracted with you to act as your agent. 
Initial rate and payment
The initial rate and payment amount on an ARM will remain in effect for a limited period of time—ranging from just 1 month to 5 years or more. For some ARMs, the initial rate and payment can vary greatly from the rates and payments later in the loan term. Even if interest rates are stable, your rates and payments could change a lot. If lenders or brokers quote the initial rate and payment on a loan, ask them for the annual percentage rate (APR). If the APR is significantly higher than the initial rate, then it is likely that your rate and payments will be a lot higher when the loan adjusts, even if general interest rates remain the same.
The adjustment period
With most ARMs, the interest rate and monthly payment change every month, quarter, year, 3 years, or 5 years. The period between rate changes is called the adjustment period. For example, a loan with an adjustment period of 1 year is called a 1year ARM, and the interest rate and payment can change once every year; a loan with a 3year adjustment period is called a 3year ARM.
Loan Descriptions Lenders must give you written information on each type of ARM loan you are interested in. The information must include the terms and conditions for each loan, including information about the index and margin, how your rate will be calculated, how often your rate can change, limits on changes (or caps), an example of how high your monthly payment might go, and other ARM features such as negative amortization. 
The index
The interest rate on an ARM is made up of two parts: the index and the margin. The index is a measure of interest rates generally, and the margin is an extra amount that the lender adds. Your payments will be affected by any caps, or limits, on how high or low your rate can go. If the index rate moves up, so does your interest rate in most circumstances, and you will probably have to make higher monthly payments. On the other hand, if the index rate goes down, your monthly payment could go down. Not all ARMs adjust downward, however—be sure to read the information for the loan you are considering.
Lenders base ARM rates on a variety of indexes. Among the most common indexes are the rates on 1year constantmaturity Treasury (CMT) securities, the Cost of Funds Index (COFI), and the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). A few lenders use their own cost of funds as an index, rather than using other indexes. You should ask what index will be used, how it has fluctuated in the past, and where it is published—you can find a lot of this information in major newspapers and on the Internet.
To help you get an idea of how to compare different indexes, the following chart shows a few common indexes over an 11year period (1996 2006). As you can see, some index rates tend to be higher than others, and some change more often. But if a lender bases interestrate adjustments on the average value of an index over time, your interest rate would not change as dramatically.
The margin
To determine the interest rate on an ARM, lenders add a few percentage points to the index rate, called the margin. The amount of the margin may differ from one lender to another, but it is usually constant over the life of the loan. The fully indexed rate is equal to the margin plus the index. If the initial rate on the loan is less than the fully indexed rate, it is called a discounted index rate. For example, if the lender uses an index that currently is 4% and adds a 3% margin, the fully indexed rate would be
Index 4% 
If the index on this loan rose to 5%, the fully indexed rate would be 8% (5% + 3%). If the index fell to 2%, the fully indexed rate would be 5% (2% + 3%).
Some lenders base the amount of the margin on your credit record— the better your credit, the lower the margin they add—and the lower the interest you will have to pay on your mortgage. In comparing ARMs, look at both the index and margin for each program.
NoDoc/LowDoc Loans When you apply for a loan, lenders usually require documents to prove that your income is high enough to repay the loan. For example, a lender might ask to see copies of your most recent pay stubs, income tax filings, and bank account statements. In a nodoc or lowdoc loan, the lender doesn't require you to bring proof of your income, but you will usually have to pay a higher interest rate or extra fees to get the loan. Lenders generally charge more for nodoc/lowdoc loans. 
An interestrate cap places a limit on the amount your interest rate can increase. Interest caps come in two versions:
periodic adjustment caps, which limit the amount the interest rate can adjust up or down from one adjustment period to the next after the first adjustment, and
lifetime caps, which limit the interestrate increase over the life of the loan. By law, virtually all ARMs must have a lifetime cap.
Periodic adjustment caps
Let's suppose you have an ARM with a periodic adjustment interest rate cap of 2%. However, at the first adjustment, the index rate has risen 3%. The following example shows what happens.
Examples in This Handbook All examples in this handbook are based on a $200,000 loan amount and a 30year term. Payment amounts in the examples do not include taxes, insurance, condominium or homeowner association fees, or similar items. These amounts can be a significant part of your monthly payment. 
Difference in 2nd year between payment with cap and payment without = $138.70 / month.
In this example, because of the cap on your loan, your monthly payment in year 2 is $138.70 per month lower than it would be without the cap, saving you $1,664.40 over the year.
Some ARMs allow a larger rate change at the first adjustment and then apply a periodic adjustment cap to all future adjustments.
A drop in interest rates does not always lead to a drop in your monthly payments. With some ARMs that have interestrate caps, the cap may hold your rate and payment below what it would have been if the change in the index rate had been fully applied. The increase in the interest that was not imposed because of the rate cap might carry over to future rate adjustments. This is called carryover. So at the next adjustment date, your payment might increase even though the index rate has stayed the same or declined.
The following example shows how carryovers work. Suppose the index on your ARM increased 3% during the first year.
Because this ARM limits rate increases to 2% at any one time, the rate is adjusted by only 2%, to 8% for the second year. However, the remaining 1% increase in the index carries over to the next time the lender can adjust rates. So when the lender adjusts the interest rate for the third year, the rate increases by 1%, to 9%, even if there is no change in the index during the second year.
In general, the rate on your loan can go up at any scheduled adjustment date when the lender's standard ARM rate (the index plus the margin) is higher than the rate you are paying before that adjustment.
Lifetime caps
The next example shows how a lifetime rate cap would affect your loan. Let's say that your ARM starts out with a 6% rate and the loan has a 6% lifetime cap—that is, the rate can never exceed 12%. Suppose the index rate increases 1% in each of the next 9 years. With a 6% overall cap, your payment would never exceed $1,998.84—compared with the $2,409.11 that it would have reached in the tenth year without a cap.
Payment caps
In addition to interestrate caps, many ARMs—including paymentoption ARMs—limit, or cap, the amount your monthly payment may increase at the time of each adjustment. For example, if your loan has a payment cap of 71⁄2%, your monthly payment won't increase more than 71⁄2% over your previous payment, even if interest rates rise more. For example, if your monthly payment in year 1 of your mortgage was $1,000, it could only go up to $1,075 in year 2 (71⁄2% of $1,000 is an additional $75). Any interest you don't pay because of the payment cap will be added to the balance of your loan. A payment cap can limit the increase to your monthly payments but also can add to the amount you owe on the loan.
Let's assume that your rate changes in the first year by 2 percentage points but your payments can increase no more than 7½% in any one year. The following graph shows what your monthly payments would look like.
Difference in monthly payment = $172.69
While your monthly payment will be only $1,289.03 for the second year, the difference of $172.69 each month will be added to the balance of your loan and will lead to negative amortization.
Some ARMs with payment caps do not have periodic interestrate
caps. In addition, as explained below, most paymentoption
ARMs have a builtin recalculation period, usually every 5 years.
At that point, your payment will be recalculated (lenders use the
term recast) based on the remaining term of the loan. If you have
a 30year loan and you are at the end of year 5, your payment
will be recalculated for the remaining 25 years. The payment
cap does not apply to this adjustment. If your loan balance has
increased, or if interest rates have risen faster than your payments,
your payments could go up a lot.
Hybrid ARMs
Hybrid ARMs often are advertised as 3/1 or 5/1 ARMs—you might also see ads for 7/1 or 10/1 ARMs. These loans are a mix—or a hybrid—of a fixedrate period and an adjustablerate period. The interest rate is fixed for the first few years of these loans—for example, for 5 years in a 5/1 ARM. After that, the rate may adjust annually (the 1 in the 5/1 example), until the loan is paid off. In the case of 3/1 or 5/1 ARMs
the first number tells you how long the fixed interestrate period will be and
the second number tells you how often the rate will adjust after the initial period.
You may also see ads for 2/28 or 3/27 ARMs—the first number tells you how long the fixed interestrate period will be, and the second number tells you the number of years the rates on the loan will be adjustable. Some 2/28 and 3/27 mortgages adjust every 6 months, not annually.
Interestonly ARMs
An interestonly (IO) ARM payment plan allows you to pay only the interest for a specified number of years, typically between 3 and 10 years. This allows you to have smaller monthly payments for a period of time. After that, your monthly payment will increase—even if interest rates stay the same—because you must start paying back the principal as well as the interest each month. For some IO loans, the interest rate adjusts during the IO period as well.
For example, if you take out a 30year mortgage loan with a 5year IO payment period, you can pay only interest for 5 years and then you must pay both the principal and interest over the next 25 years. Because you begin to pay back the principal, your payments increase after year 5, even if the rate stays the same. Keep in mind that the longer the IO period, the higher your monthly payments will be after the IO period ends.
A paymentoption ARM is an adjustablerate mortgage that allows you to choose among several payment options each month. The options typically include the following:
The interest rate on a paymentoption ARM is typically very low for the first few months (for example, 2% for the first 1 to 3 months). After that, the interest rate usually rises to a rate closer to that of other mortgage loans. Your payments during the first year are based on the initial low rate, meaning that if you only make the minimum payment each month, it will not reduce the amount you owe and it may not cover the interest due. The unpaid interest is added to the amount you owe on the mortgage, and your loan balance increases. This is called negative amortization. This means that even after making many payments, you could owe more than you did at the beginning of the loan. Also, as interest rates go up, your payments are likely to go up.
Paymentoption ARMs have a builtin recalculation period, usually every 5 years. At this point, your payment will be recalculated (lenders use the term recast) based on the remaining term of the loan. If you have a 30year loan and you are at the end of year 5, your payment will be recalculated for the remaining 25 years. If your loan balance has increased because you have made only minimum payments, or if interest rates have risen faster than your payments, your payments will increase each time your loan is recast. At each recast, your new minimum payment will be a fully amortizing payment and any payment cap will not apply. This means that your monthly payment can increase a lot at each recast.
Lenders may recalculate your loan payments before the recast
period if the amount of principal you owe grows beyond a set
limit, say 110% or 125% of your original mortgage amount. For
example, suppose you made only minimum payments on your
$200,000 mortgage and had any unpaid interest added to your
balance. If the balance grew to $250,000 (125% of $200,000), your
lender would recalculate your payments so that you would pay
off the loan over the remaining term. It is likely that your payments
would go up substantially.
Discounted interest rates
Many lenders offer more than one type of ARM. Some lenders offer an ARM with an initial rate that is lower than their fully indexed ARM rate (that is, lower than the sum of the index plus the margin). Such rates—called discounted rates, start rates, or teaser rates—are often combined with large initial loan fees, sometimes called points, and with higher rates after the initial discounted rate expires.
Your lender or broker may offer you a choice of loans that may include discount points or a discount fee. You may choose to pay these points or fees in return for a lower interest rate. But keep in mind that the lower interest rate may only last until the first adjustment.
If a lender offers you a loan with a discount rate, don't assume that means that the loan is a good one for you. You should carefully consider whether you will be able to afford higher payments in later years when the discount expires and the rate is adjusted.
Here is an example of how a discounted initial rate might work. Let's assume that the lender's fully indexed oneyear ARM rate (index rate plus margin) is currently 6%; the monthly payment for the first year would be $1,199.10. But your lender is offering an ARM with a discounted initial rate of 4% for the first year. With the 4% rate, your firstyear's monthly payment would be $954.83.
With a discounted ARM, your initial payment will probably remain at $954.83 for only a limited time—and any savings during the discount period may be offset by higher payments over the remaining life of the mortgage. If you are considering a discount ARM, be sure to compare future payments with those for a fully indexed ARM. In fact, if you buy a home or refinance using a deeply discounted initial rate, you run the risk of payment shock, negative amortization, or prepayment penalties or conversion fees.
Payment shock
Payment shock may occur if your mortgage payment rises sharply at a rate adjustment. Let's see what would happen in the second year if the rate on your discounted 4% ARM were to rise to the 6% fully indexed rate.
As the example shows, even if the index rate were to stay the same, your monthly payment would go up from $954.83 to $1,192.63 in the second year.
Suppose that the index rate increases 1% in one year and the ARM rate rises to 7%. Your payment in the second year would be $1,320.59.
That's an increase of $365.76 in your monthly payment. You can see what might happen if you choose an ARM because of a low initial rate without considering whether you will be able to afford future payments.
If you have an interestonly ARM, payment shock can also occur when the interestonly period ends. Or, if you have a paymentoption ARM, payment shock can happen when the loan is recast.
The following example compares several different loans over the first 7 years of their terms; the payments shown are for years 1, 6, and 7 of the mortgage, assuming you make interestonly payments or minimum payments. The main point is that, depending on the terms and conditions of your mortgage and changes in interest rates, ARM payments can change quite a bit over the life of the loan—so while you could save money in the first few years of an ARM, you could also face much higher payments in the future.
Negative amortization—When you owe more money than you borrowed
Negative amortization means that the amount you owe increases even when you make all your required payments on time. It occurs whenever your monthly mortgage payments are not large enough to pay all of the interest due on your mortgage—the unpaid interest is added to the principal on your mortgage, and you will owe more than you originally borrowed. This can happen because you are making only minimum payments on a paymentoption mortgage or because your loan has a payment cap.
For example, suppose you have a $200,000, 30year paymentoption ARM with a 2% rate for the first 3 months and a 6% rate for the remaining 9 months of the year. Your minimum payment for the year is $739.24, as shown in the previous graph. However, once the 6% rate is applied to your loan balance, you are no longer covering the interest costs. If you continue to make minimum payments on this loan, your loan balance at the end of the first year of your mortgage would be $201,118—or $1,118 more than you originally borrowed.
Because payment caps limit only the amount of payment increases, and not interestrate increases, payments sometimes do not cover all the interest due on your loan. This means that the unpaid interest is automatically added to your debt, and interest may be charged on that amount. You might owe the lender more later in the loan term than you did at the beginning.
A payment cap limits the increase in your monthly payment by deferring some of the interest. Eventually, you would have to repay the higher remaining loan balance at the interest rate then in effect. When this happens, there may be a substantial increase in your monthly payment.
Some mortgages include a cap on negative amortization. The cap typically limits the total amount you can owe to 110% to 125% of the original loan amount. When you reach that point, the lender will set the monthly payment amounts to fully repay the loan over the remaining term. Your payment cap will not apply, and your payments could be substantially higher. You may limit negative amortization by voluntarily increasing your monthly payment.
Be sure you know whether the ARM you are considering can have negative amortization.
Home Prices, Home Equity, and ARMs Sometimes home prices rise rapidly, allowing people to quickly build equity in their homes. This can make some people think that even if the rate and payments on their ARM get too high, they can avoid those higher payments by refinancing their loan or, in the worst case, selling their home. It's important to remember that home prices do not always go up quickly—they may increase a little or remain the same, and sometimes they fall. If housing prices fall, your home may not be worth as much as you owe on the mortgage. Also, you may find it difficult to refinance your loan to get a lower monthly payment or rate. Even if home prices stay the same, if your loan lets you make minimum payments, you may owe your lender more on your mortgage than you could get from selling your home. 
Prepayment penalties and conversion
If you get an ARM, you may decide later that you don't want to risk any increases in the interest rate and payment amount. When you are considering an ARM, ask for information about any extra fees you would have to pay if you pay off the loan early by refinancing or selling your home, and whether you would be able to convert your ARM to a fixedrate mortgage.
Prepayment penalties
Some ARMs, including interestonly and paymentoption ARMs, may require you to pay special fees or penalties if you refinance or pay off the ARM early (usually within the first 3 to 5 years of the loan). Some loans have hard prepayment penalties, meaning that you will pay an extra fee or penalty if you pay off the loan during the penalty period for any reason (because you refinance or sell your home, for example). Other loans have soft prepayment penalties, meaning that you will pay an extra fee or penalty only if you refinance the loan, but you will not pay a penalty if you sell your home. Also, some loans may have prepayment penalties even if you make only a partial prepayment.
Prepayment penalties can be several thousand dollars. For example, suppose you have a 3/1 ARM with an initial rate of 6%. At the end of year 2 you decide to refinance and pay off your original loan. At the time of refinancing, your balance is $194,936. If your loan has a prepayment penalty of 6 months' interest on the remaining balance, you would owe about $5,850.
Sometimes there is a tradeoff between having a prepayment penalty and having lower origination fees or lower interest rates.
The lender may be willing to reduce or eliminate a prepayment penalty based on the amount you pay in loan fees or on the interest rate in the loan contract.
If you have a hybrid ARM—such as a 2/28 or 3/27 ARM—be sure to compare the prepayment penalty period with the ARM's first adjustment period. For example, if you have a 2/28 ARM that has a rate and payment adjustment after the second year, but the prepayment penalty is in effect for the first 5 years of the loan, it may be costly to refinance when the first adjustment is made.
Most mortgages let you make additional principal payments with your monthly payment. In most cases, this is not considered prepayment, and there usually is no penalty for these extra amounts. Check with your lender to make sure there is no penalty if you think you might want to make this type of additional principal prepayment.
Conversion fees
Your agreement with the lender may include a clause that lets you convert the ARM to a fixedrate mortgage at designated times. When you convert, the new rate is generally set using a formula given in your loan documents.
The interest rate or upfront fees may be somewhat higher for a convertible ARM. Also, a convertible ARM may require a fee at the time of conversion.
Graduatedpayment or steppedrate loans
Some fixedrate loans start with one rate for one or two years
and then change to another rate for the remaining term of the loan. While these are not ARMs, your payment will go up
according to the terms of your contract. Talk with your lender
or broker and read the information provided to you to make
sure you understand when and by how much the payment will
change.
Disclosures from lenders
You should receive information in writing about each ARM program you are interested in before you have paid a nonrefundable fee. It is important that you read this information and ask the lender or broker about anything you don't understand—index rates, margins, caps, and other ARM features such as negative amortization. After you have applied for a loan, you will get more information from the lender about your loan, including the APR, a payment schedule, and whether the loan has a prepayment penalty.
The APR is the cost of your credit as a yearly rate. It takes into account interest, points paid on the loan, any fees paid to the lender for making the loan, and any mortgage insurance premiums you may have to pay. You can compare APRs on similar ARMs (for example, compare APRs on a 5/1 and a 3/1 ARM) to determine which loan will cost you less in the long term, but you should keep in mind that because the interest rate for an ARM can change, APRs on ARMs cannot be compared directly to APRs for fixedrate mortgages.
You may want to talk with financial advisers, housing counselors, and other trusted advisers. Contact a local housing counseling agency, call the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development tollfree at 8005694287.
Newspapers and the Internet
When buying a home or refinancing your existing mortgage, remember to shop around. Compare costs and terms, and negotiate for the best deal. Your local newspaper and the Internet are good places to start shopping for a loan. You can usually find information on interest rates and points for several lenders. Since rates and points can change daily, you'll want to check information sources often when shopping for a home loan.
The Mortgage Shopping Worksheet may also help you. Take it with you when you speak to each lender or broker and write down the information you obtain. Don't be afraid to make lenders and brokers compete with each other for your business by letting them know that you are shopping for the best deal.
Advertisements
Any initial information you receive about mortgages probably will come from advertisements or mail solicitations from builders, real estate brokers, mortgage brokers, and lenders. Although this information can be helpful, keep in mind that these are marketing materials—the ads and mailings are designed to make the mortgage look as attractive as possible. These ads may play up low initial interest rates and monthly payments, without emphasizing that those rates and payments could increase substantially later. So, get all the facts.
Any ad for an ARM that shows an initial interest rate should also show how long the rate is in effect and the APR on the loan. If the APR is much higher than the initial rate, your payments may increase a lot after the introductory period, even if interest rates stay the same.
Choosing a mortgage may be the most important financial decision
you will make. You are entitled to have all the information
you need to make the right decision. Don't hesitate to ask questions
about ARM features when you talk to lenders, mortgage
brokers, real estate agents, sellers, and your attorney, and keep
asking until you get clear and complete answers.
Adjustablerate mortgage (ARM)
A mortgage that does not have a fixed interest rate. The rate
changes during the life of the loan based on movements in an
index rate, such as the rate for Treasury securities or the Cost of
Funds Index.
Annual percentage rate (APR)
A measure of the cost of credit, expressed as a yearly rate. It
includes interest as well as points, broker fees, and certain other
credit charges that you are required to pay. Because all lenders
follow the same rules when calculating the APR, it provides
you with a good basis for comparing the cost of loans, including
mortgages, over the term of the loan.
Balloon payment
A lumpsum payment that may be required when a mortgage
loan ends. This can happen when the lender allows you to make
smaller payments until the very end of the loan. A balloon payment
will be a much larger payment compared with the other
monthly payments you made.
Buydown
With a buydown, the seller pays an amount to the lender so
that the lender can give you a lower rate and lower payments,
usually for an initial period in an ARM. The seller may increase
the sales price to cover the cost of the buydown. Buydowns can
occur in all types of mortgages, not just ARMs.
Cap, interest rate
A limit on the amount your interest rate can increase. Interest
caps come in two versions:
• periodic adjustment caps, which limit the interestrate increase
from one adjustment period to the next, and
• lifetime caps, which limit the interestrate increase over the
life of the loan. By law, virtually all ARMs must have an
overall cap.
Cap, payment
A limit on how much the monthly payment may change, either
each time the payment changes or during the life of the mortgage.
Payment caps may lead to negative amortization because
they do not limit the amount of interest the lender is earning.
Conversion clause
A provision in some ARMs that allows you to change the ARM
to a fixedrate loan at some point during the term. Conversion is
usually allowed at the end of the first adjustment period. At the
time of the conversion, the new fixed rate is generally set at one
of the rates then prevailing for fixedrate mortgages. The conversion
feature may be available at extra cost.
Discounted initial rate (also known as a start rate or
teaser rate)
In an ARM with a discounted initial rate, the lender offers you
a lower rate and lower payments for part of the mortgage term
(usually for 1, 3, or 5 years). After the discount period, the ARM
rate will probably go up depending on the index rate. Discounts
can occur in all types of mortgages, not just ARMs.
Equity
The difference between the fair market value of the home and
the outstanding balance on your mortgage plus any outstanding
home equity loans.
Hybrid ARM
These ARMs are a mix—or a hybrid—of a fixedrate period and
an adjustablerate period. The interest rate is fixed for the first
several years of the loan; after that, the rate could adjust annually.
For example, hybrid ARMs can be advertised as 3/1 or
5/1—the first number tells you how long the fixed interestrate
period will be and the second number tells you how often the
rate will adjust after the initial period.
Index
The economic indicator used to calculate interestrate adjustments
for adjustablerate mortgages. No one can be sure when
an index rate will go up or down. See the chart in the text for
examples of how some common indexes have changed in the
past.
Interest
The price paid for borrowing money, usually given in percentages
and as an annual rate.
Interestonly payment ARM
An IO payment ARM plan allows you to pay only the interest
for a specified number of years. After that, you must repay both
the principal and the interest over the remaining term of the
loan.
Margin
The number of percentage points the lender adds to the index
rate to calculate the ARM interest rate at each adjustment.
Negative amortization
Occurs when the monthly payments do not cover all the interest
owed. The interest that is not paid in the monthly payment
is added to the loan balance. This means that even after making
many payments, you could owe more than you did at the beginning
of the loan. Negative amortization can occur when an ARM
has a payment cap that results in monthly payments that are not
high enough to cover the interest due or when the minimum
payments are set at an amount lower than the amount you owe
in interest.
Paymentoption ARM
An ARM that allows you to choose among several payment
options each month. The options typically include (1) a traditional
amortizing payment of principal and interest, (2) an
interestonly payment, or (3) a minimum (or limited) payment
that may be less than the amount of interest due that month. If
you choose the minimumpayment option, the amount of any
interest you do not pay will be added to the principal of your
loan (see negative amortization).
Points (may be called discount points)
One point is equal to 1 percent of the principal amount of your
mortgage. For example, if the mortgage is for $200,000, one
point equals $2,000. Lenders frequently charge points in both
fixedrate and adjustablerate mortgages in order to cover loan
origination costs or to provide additional compensation to the
lender or broker. These points usually are collected at closing and may be paid by the borrower or the home seller, or may be
split between them. Discount points (sometimes called discount
fees) are points that you voluntarily choose to pay in return for a
lower interest rate.
Prepayment penalty
Extra fees that may be due if you pay off the loan early by refinancing
your loan or selling your home, usually limited to the
first 3 to 5 years of the loan's term. If your loan includes a prepayment
penalty, be aware of the penalty you would have to pay.
Compare the length of the prepayment penalty period with the
first adjustment period of the ARM to see if refinancing is costeffective
before the loan first adjusts. Some loans may have prepayment
penalties even if you make only a partial prepayment.
Principal
The amount of money borrowed or the amount still owed on a
loan.
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