Bankruptcy Forms: Filing Bankruptcy Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Software Chapter 13

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TITLE 11–BANKRUPTCY

CHAPTER 11– REORGANIZATION

Sub Chapter – Officers and Administration

Sec. 1112. Conversion or dismissal

(a) The debtor may convert a case under this chapter to a case under 
chapter 7 of this title unless--
        (1) the debtor is not a debtor in possession;
        (2) the case originally was commenced as an involuntary case 
    under this chapter; or
        (3) the case was converted to a case under this chapter other 
    than on the debtor's request.

    (b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, on request 
of a party in interest or the United States trustee or bankruptcy 
administrator, and after notice and a hearing, the court may convert a 
case under this chapter to a case under chapter 7 of this title or may 
dismiss a case under this chapter, whichever is in the best interest of 
creditors and the estate, for cause, including--
        (1) continuing loss to or diminution of the estate and absence 
    of a reasonable likelihood of rehabilitation;
        (2) inability to effectuate a plan;
        (3) unreasonable delay by the debtor that is prejudicial to 
    creditors;
        (4) failure to propose a plan under section 1121 of this title 
    within any time fixed by the court;
        (5) denial of confirmation of every proposed plan and denial of 
    a request made for additional time for filing another plan or a 
    modification of a plan;
        (6) revocation of an order of confirmation under section 1144 of 
    this title, and denial of confirmation of another plan or a modified 
    plan under section 1129 of this title;
        (7) inability to effectuate substantial consummation of a 
    confirmed plan;
        (8) material default by the debtor with respect to a confirmed 
    plan;
        (9) termination of a plan by reason of the occurrence of a 
    condition specified in the plan; or
        (10) nonpayment of any fees or charges required under chapter 
    123 of title 28.

    (c) The court may not convert a case under this chapter to a case 
under chapter 7 of this title if the debtor is a farmer or a corporation 
that is not a moneyed, business, or commercial corporation, unless the 
debtor requests such conversion.
    (d) The court may convert a case under this chapter to a case under 
chapter 12 or 13 of this title only if--
        (1) the debtor requests such conversion;
        (2) the debtor has not been discharged under section 1141(d) of 
    this title; and
        (3) if the debtor requests conversion to chapter 12 of this 
    title, such conversion is equitable.

    (e) Except as provided in subsections (c) and (f), the court, on 
request of the United States trustee, may convert a case under this 
chapter to a case under chapter 7 of this title or may dismiss a case 
under this chapter, whichever is in the best interest of creditors and 
the estate if the debtor in a voluntary case fails to file, within 
fifteen days after the filing of the petition commencing such case or 
such additional time as the court may allow, the information required by 
paragraph (1) of section 521, including a list containing the names and 
addresses of the holders of the twenty largest unsecured claims (or of 
all unsecured claims if there are fewer than twenty unsecured claims), 
and the approximate dollar amounts of each of such claims.
    (f) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a case may 
not be converted to a case under another chapter of this title unless 
the debtor may be a debtor under such chapter.

(Pub. L. 95-598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2630; Pub. L. 98-353, title III, 
Sec. 505, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 384; Pub. L. 99-554, title II, 
Secs. 224, 256, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3102, 3114; Pub. L. 103-394, 
title II, Sec. 217(c), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4127.)


                      Historical and Revision Notes

                         legislative statements

    Section 1112 of the House amendment represents a compromise between 
the House bill and Senate amendment with respect to the factors 
constituting cause for conversion of a case to chapter 7 or dismissal. 
The House amendment combines two separate factors contained in section 
1112(b)(1) and section 1112(b)(2) of the Senate amendment. Section 
1112(b)(1) of the House amendment permits the court to convert a case to 
a case under chapter 7 or to dismiss the case if there is both a 
continuing loss to or diminution of the estate and the absence of a 
reasonable likelihood of rehabilitation; requiring both factors to be 
present simultaneously represents a compromise from the House bill which 
eliminated both factors from the list of causes enumerated.
    Sections 1112(c) and 1112(d) of the House amendment is derived from 
the House bill which differs from the Senate amendment only as a matter 
of style.


                        senate report no. 95-989

    This section brings together all of the conversion and dismissal 
rules for chapter 11 cases. Subsection (a) gives the debtor an absolute 
right to convert a voluntarily commenced chapter 11 case in which the 
debtor remains in possession to a liquidation case.
    Subsection (b) gives wide discretion to the court to make an 
appropriate disposition of the case sua sponte or upon motion of a party 
in interest, or the court is permitted to convert a reorganization case 
to a liquidation case or to dismiss the case, whichever is in the best 
interest of creditors and the estate, but only for cause. Cause may 
include the continuing loss to or dimunition [sic] of the estate of an 
insolvent debtor, the absence of a reasonable likelihood of 
rehabilitation, the inability to effectuate a plan, unreasonable delay 
by the debtor that is prejudicial to creditors, failure to file a plan 
within the appropriate time limits, denial of confirmation and any 
opportunity to modify or propose a new plan, revocation of confirmation 
and denial of confirmation of a modified plan, inability to effectuate 
substantial consummation of a confirmed plan, material default by the 
debtor under the plan, and termination of the plan by reason of the 
occurrence of a condition specified in the plan. This list is not 
exhaustive. The court will be able to consider other factors as they 
arise, and to use its equitable powers to reach an appropriate result in 
individual cases. The power of the court to act sua sponte should be 
used sparingly and only in emergency situations.
    Subsection (c) prohibits the court from converting a case concerning 
a farmer or an eleemosynary institution to a liquidation case unless the 
debtor consents.
    Subsection (d) prohibits conversion of a reorganization case to a 
chapter 13 case unless the debtor requests conversion and his discharge 
has not been granted or has been revoked.
    Subsection (e) reinforces section 109 by prohibiting conversion of a 
chapter 11 case to a case under another chapter proceedings under which 
the debtor is not permitted to proceed.


                               Amendments

    1994--Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-394 inserted ``or bankruptcy 
administrator'' after ``United States trustee''.
    1986--Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 224(1)(A), inserted ``or the 
United States trustee'' after ``party in interest''.
    Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 224(1)(B)-(D), added par. 
(10).
    Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 256, inserted reference to chapter 
12 and added par. (3).
    Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 99-554, Sec. 224(2), (3), added subsec. 
(e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).
    1984--Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(a)(1), substituted 
``originally was commenced as an involuntary case'' for ``is an 
involuntary case originally commenced''.
    Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(a)(2), substituted ``other 
than on'' for ``on other than''.
    Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(b)(1), inserted ``a request 
made for'' before ``additional''.
    Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 98-353, Sec. 505(b)(2), substituted ``or'' 
for ``and''.


                    Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

    Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not 
applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 
22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under 
section 101 of this title.


                    Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

    Effective date and applicability of amendment by section 224 of Pub. 
L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 
302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554, set out as a note under section 581 of 
Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
    Amendment by section 256 of Pub. L. 99-554 effective 30 days after 
Oct. 27, 1986, but not applicable to cases commenced under this title 
before that date, see section 302(a), (c)(1) of Pub. L. 99-554.


                    Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

    Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 
days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353, set out 
as a note under section 101 of this title.

                  Section Referred to in Other Sections

    This section is referred to in sections 348, 365, 706, 726, 728, 
1208, 1307 of this title.


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